Body Armor Performance


Bullet hit, or gunshot wound (GSW), is physical trauma caused by a firearm bullet. Damage may include bleeding, broken bones, organ damage, infection of the injury, paralysis of some part of the body.

 Damage depends on:

  • The part of the body hit
  • The path the bullet follows through the body
  • The type and speed of the bullet.

Long-term complications can include lead poisoning and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Trauma from a gunshot wound varies widely based on the bullet, velocity, mass, entry point, trajectory, and affected anatomy. Gunshot wounds can be more dangerous than other penetrating injuries because the trajectory and fragmentation of bullets can be unpredictable after entry.

Effects of bullet shots

  • Gunshot wounds involve a large degree of tissue disruption and destruction caused by the physical effects of the projectile with the bullet velocity classification.
  • The immediate effect of a gunshot wound is severe bleeding that sometimes leads to hypovolemic shock.
  • Traumatic hypovolemic shock is a condition characterized by inadequate delivery of oxygen to vital organs in the body. This failure of adequate oxygen delivery is due to blood loss, as blood is the means of delivering oxygen to the body’s constituent parts.
  • Devastating effects can result when a bullet strikes a vital organ such as the heart, lungs, liver, or damage to a central nervous system component such as the spinal cord or brain.
  • A sudden blood gush may take effect immediately from a gunshot wound if a bullet directly damages larger blood vessels, especially arteries.

Common causes of death after gunshot injury

  • Bleeding
  • Low oxygen caused by pneumothorax
  • Significant injury to the heart and major blood vessels
  • Damage to the brain or central nervous system.

 Non-fatal gunshot wounds frequently have mild to severe, long-lasting effects, some form of major disfigurement such as amputation because of a severe bone fracture, leading to permanent disability.

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